Andy Smith's Blog

Docker volume and docker VOLUME

I've been fiddling with docker lately and it took me a while to come to this realisation. The docker volume command line argument and the docker VOLUME Dockerfile instruction are a bit different.

The docker volume command line argument:

docker run -v /var/logs:/var/logs ubuntu echo test

And the docker VOLUME Dockerfile instruction:

VOLUME /var/logs

The Dockerfile VOLUME instruction doesn't support host directories.

As discussed in this stackoverflow post it looks like this is intentional because it makes things less portable.

Quick and Easy SSH MITM

A quick intro to using mitmproxy to man-in-the-middle an SSH connection.

So you want to sniff an SSH connection (that you have access to) but wireshark is giving you junk? Luckily someone has written a tool for that. The mitmproxy by Maximilian Hils allows you to plop a fake server in between your SSH client and the SSH server you're connecting to.

(Confusingly this is not the same as the other, more well known mitmproxy which only does HTTPS and HTTP)

I wanted to have a nose at the data sent from git to github over SSH. This is what I did.

# Download mitmproxy
git clone https://github.com/mitmproxy/mitmproxy.git

#Generate mitm keys (these go to ~/.mitmkeys)
./mitmkeys

Now you want to install the SSH key you just generated to the server you want to mitm.

#Install SSH key
ssh-copy-id -i ~/.mitmkeys/id_rsa.pub user@victimserver

Then run the proxy, pointing it at the victimserver.

#Run proxy
./mitmproxy_ssh -H victimserver

This runs the proxy on localhost:2222

Now simply connect to the local proxy:

ssh localhost -p 2222

And ta-da! You should see the raw data sent between client and server in the window you ran mitmproxy_ssh.

Raspberry Pi Wi-Fi Honeypot

I wanted to turn my Raspberry Pi in to a "fake" wireless access point that would accept Wi-Fi connections without a password but sandbox all requests to a local web server, like some hotel Wi-Fi you might encounter.

It turns out that to achieve this you need a Wi-Fi dongle that supports "AP Mode". I ended up ordering an Edimax EW-7711UAN which has worked perfectly in AP mode with the pi so far.

For this tutorial I am assuming that your pi is physically connected to your network via a LAN cable (on eth0). We can't set this up over Wi-Fi because the Wi-Fi network is going to be sandboxed.

Install

So, beginning with a fresh Raspian install I installed the following:

sudo apt-get install -y hostapd dnsmasq nginx
  • hostapd will allow you to receive connections on your dongle, as if it were a wireless router.

  • Dnsmasq will allow the pi to provide DNS and DHCP services which is the bare minimum we need to get the clients to "work" on the network.

  • Nginx is the web server we'll use to serve the dummy files on our sandboxed network.

Configuration

First hostapd:

sudo touch /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf
sudo nano /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf

And paste the following:

interface=wlan0
driver=nl80211
ssid=NotFreeWifi
channel=1

We also need to tell hostapd where to find this config file:

sudo nano /etc/init.d/hostapd

Find the line:

DAEMON_CONF=

And change it to:

DAEMON_CONF=/etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf

This will set your pi up to accept unsecured connections. Don't do it if you don't know what you're doing.

Next up, dnsmasq:

sudo nano /etc/dnsmasq.conf

And paste the following (at the end of the file):

log-facility=/var/log/dnsmasq.log
address=/#/10.0.0.1
interface=wlan0
dhcp-range=10.0.0.10,10.0.0.250,12h
no-resolv
log-queries

This will set up the DHCP server, resolve all DNS lookups to 10.0.0.1 and log all queries to /var/log/dnsmasq.

Now, you may have noticed that we used 10.0.0.1 there, the plan is to get the Wi-Fi adaptor listening on 10.0.0.1. This is to segregate the open Wi-Fi connections from the regular network:

sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces

And replace the contents with:

auto lo

iface lo inet loopback
iface eth0 inet dhcp

iface wlan0 inet static
address 10.0.0.1
netmask 255.255.255.0
broadcast 255.0.0.0
pre-up iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.rules

Then, let's put a message in our www directory:

sudo echo "<h1>hello!<h1>" > /usr/share/nginx/www/index.html

Finally, we want to lock down our pi so that anyone who gets on the open network can't get up to any funny business:

sudo iptables -F
sudo iptables -i wlan0 -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
sudo iptables -i wlan0 -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
sudo iptables -i wlan0 -A INPUT -p udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
sudo iptables -i wlan0 -A INPUT -p udp --dport 67:68 -j ACCEPT
sudo iptables -i wlan0 -A INPUT -j DROP

sudo sh -c "iptables-save > /etc/iptables.rules"

Let's set up all these services to start on startup so it will just work each time we turn it on:

sudo update-rc.d nginx defaults
sudo update-rc.d hostapd defaults
sudo update-rc.d dnsmasq defaults

Now make sure this will work on boot by turning it off and on again:

sudo reboot

Testing

If you do a Wi-Fi search on your laptop or phone you should now see "NotFreeWifi". If you connect and type in "www.blaargh.com" you should get the message we wrote out earlier.

Conclusion

Now if you're a normal human being you've probably just blindly pasted these commands in to your shell. If you'd like to know what you've set up, then read on!

Using hostapd we've set up our wireless dongle to take unsecured (no passwords) connections using the SSID "NotFreeWifi". This will allow anyone with Wi-Fi on their laptop or phone or whatever to connect to the pi.

On it's own this won't do much - clients won't be able to do anything once they connect -so we've setup Dnsmasq to give clients I.P. addresses and tell them use 10.0.0.1 (the pi's I.P.) as a gateway.

We've also used Dnsmasq to provide a DNS server which we've (rather sneakily) set up to give the address 10.0.0.1 to any request. So if someone tries to visit facebook.com, we tell them the address is 10.0.0.1

Finally we've set up a webserver on the pi - so when users do try and go to facebook.com they actually connect to our pi - where we say hello to them.

Results

I've been running this on my pi for a week now and because of it's location I wasn't expecting to get any connections. Which is why I was pretty surprised to see that 5 people who weren't me have connected:

sudo cat /var/log/dnsmasq.log  | grep provides | awk '{print $9}' | sort | uniq

android-xxxxxxxxxxxx2535
android-xxxxxxxxxxxx2c93
android-xxxxxxxxxxxx96cc
Axxxxx-iphone
BLACKBERRY-Exxx

The $15 (per year) Honeypot

Super low budget VPS servers make an ideal home for your own honeypot, this post takes you through setting up a feature packed honeypot on a TinyVZ VPS.

I'm always on the look out for a cheap place to a host a honeypot which is why I was pretty intrigued when I came accross a few companies offering $15 per year virtual private servers.

This offer does seem to good to be true - and I don't plan on hosting anything important on my VPS - but I've been running one with TinyVZ for 3 months now and had no problems to speak of.

So, here's a quick guide to setting up your own $15 honeypot - though please don't treat this as a glowing endorsement of super cheap VPSs, when I paid my $15 I treated it more as placing a bet than purchasing a service.

I have chosen TinyVZ as the host for this guide, you can almost certainly do this on other similarly cheap hosts. Because this guide uses my honeypot setup script most of it revolves around navigating TinyVZ's control panel. I am not affiliated with TinyVZ.

TinyVZ have confirmed that they are happy for their customers to run honeypots.

Setup

Server Setup (TinyVZ Specific)

  • Sign up for a TinyVZ account (this can take up to 3 days)
  • You will eventually receive a "New Server Information" email.
  • Login to the control panel with the details provided.
  • Click "Reload OS"
  • Choose ubuntu-12.04-x86 and push "Reload with selected OS"
  • Once that's done go back to "Main Menu"
  • Now copy the I.P. address of "Host Machine" and connect via SSH to this address
  • When prompted enter username "vz" and password "vz"
  • Now for "RAMCP Username" and "RAMCP Password" enter the username and password provided in the welcome email
  • You should now be logged in as root
  • Set a password with passwd
  • Install sudo: apt-get update && apt-get install sudo

Install (Ubuntu)

  • Now run the following: wget -q https://raw.github.com/andrewmichaelsmith/honeypot-setup-script/master/setup.bash -O /tmp/setup.bash && bash /tmp/setup.bash

Conclusion

Tada - you should now have a full Kippo and Dionaea install. You can monitor /var/kippo and /var/dionaea for logs and binaries.

Security Considerations The default setup you are left with on this server is iffy at best. You should not really be logging in as root, I would advise at the very least following this guide on securing SSH.